Presentation 1
Presentation 2
Präsentation 2
Presentation 1

André Tzschupke; Dresden, 01.12.1998

History of the German Cellphone Networks

(... natürlich wie immer mit Unmengen an Fehlern)

  • to speak about
    1. the different german cellphone networks A-, B-, C-, D-, E-Netz ;
    2. mobile networks future ;
    3. phones, devices
  • don't want to speak about network technology, if not absolute necessarily

1. History

  • first mobile radio system 1921, Detroit Police Department, f=2MHz, Push To Talk > no duplex, no connection to the normal telephone network, shortly after 2.WW suggestion from Bell Systems for a mobile radio system with connection to the normal telephone network, started in 1946, f=150MHz, Half Duplex
  • early 50's first mobile radio networks in Germany, 1958 united from the DBP to the A-Netz
  • f=150MHz, connection from mobile: manual search for channel, paging the operator, connection to the mobile: via exchange
  • 1971 about 11000 customers, this was nearly the highest number of customers, coverage about 80% in 1968 (WestGermany+WestBerlin)
  • switched of in 1977, still about 800 customers
  • in the late 60s development of the B-Netz, start in 1972
  • no operator needed, direct dialling, but: you have to know, where the mobile is, calling with dialing the according area code, e.g. for Stuttgart 0711-05-No.
  • from mobile direct dialing
  • no Hand-Over, connection breaks down at the end of the cell, r=30km, then new area code will be needed!
  • in 1977 capacity limits of the B1-Netz reached, extension with the just released frequencies of the A-Netz > B2-Netz, fB1=150MHz, fB2=160MHz
  • in 1986 highest number of subscribers = 270000, September 93 still about 15000
  • international roaming NL, LUX, A
  • in 1986 no further new contracts allowed, switched of 02.01.95 A-/B-Netz networks of the 1. generation, the C-Netz, developed in the early 80s, the most modern but also most complicated mobile radio network in its time, was a network of the 2. generation
  • 2. generation: network knows, where the mobile is, Hand-Over
  • while switching on the mobile will registrate itself in the network with the datas stored at the card, during an arriving call the network is paging the mobile in the registered area, regular LocationUpdate, DANGER: (lamps, printers ...)
  • Hand-Over on the border to the nearest cell (drawing)
  • first network using digital signals, but the transfer of the speech still analogous, producer: SIEMENS
  • f=450MHz, start may 1985, planned for 100000 customers, soon capacity limit reached, extension by cellsplitting, 1993 extension to 800000 customers by changing the channel grid
  • highest number of customers: = 850000, in Okt. 98 400000
  • coverage nearly 100%
  • will be switched of about 2004, its still possible to make a contract
  • 1982 foundation of „Groupe Special Mobile“ (GSM) as apart of CEPT -> elaborate specifications for a new radio network
  • 02/87 GSM principle decisions, beginning the specifications
  • 06/90 „First Call“
  • 06/91 beginning the test operation
  • summer '92 both networks started, for the first time a private seller worked
  • 1994 name changed „Global System For Mobile Communication“, because in the meantime spreaded all over the world, about 200 networks, with D2 you can phone in about 80 countries
  • in October 98 about 10 million customers, D1 4,7 million (+ 150000 from Sept>Oct), D2 5220000 (+ 220000), D1 has reached 5 million too, comparison to A/B/C !
  • coverage about 98%
  • in summer 1994 start „E+Netz“
  • also GSM-Standard, but works on 1800 Mhz > GSM1800 <> GSM900
  • in October 98 about 1640000 customers (+60000)
  • advertising: coverage 98% in the population, but this means only about 70% 80% of the area
  • 01.10.98 start „E2 Viag Interkom“ in 8 conurbation's, DD is working now
  • also GSM1800 network, with small extensions, e.g. „Home Zone“

2. Future

  • in 1999 20,5 million customers expected in Germany, in 2000 even 30,8 million
    conventional GSM networks will reach, especially in conurbation's, their capacity limits
  • furthermore only small data rates (9600 bps)
  • that's why 3. generation mobile radio network developed >UMTS
  • negotiations about final standard were finished some times ago, Nokia announced first successful call with a UMTS phone some weeks ago
  • about 2001 start in Japan, about 2002 in Europe
  • UMTS network working on 2,2GHz, able to transport not only speech but also data with flexible speed up to 2MB/sec, flexible: band width can be demanded from the customer
  • if you want to be reached all over the world you will need a satellite phone
  • first idea for such a network came from Motorola in 1987, based on the consideration that there are 90% of the world without any infrastructure, and there will be more and more people not only travelling in their country but also world wide
  • the first satellite network where you can use a „Handy“ too is the „Iridium“ network
  • actually Iridium should start in September, because of the breakdown of some satellite and further technical problems there is running a test with 2000 persons only
  • in spring 99 „Globalstar“ will start another network, but they have also problems, 12 satellites were destroyed during an explosion of a rocket in russia

3. Devices, Phones

  • even like the networks the phones were developed, from complicated and heavy to modern, simple devices
  • story „Handy“
  • C5 office
  • jelly babies for everybody!

Quellen:, Henning Gajek, Ulrich K. Sorger

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